Now the results are in. We are patiently waiting to see if they will be any charges brought against Minustah, for causing the lives of more than 4000 peoples and over 300.000 still affected by the virus.
Justice for Haiti.
You can view the the final report by clicking here
excerpt from page 28, 29
Page 28 of 32
The available molecular data from whole genome sequence and comparisons of smaller specific parts of the genomes of the
strains responsible for the outbreak of cholera in Haiti show a remarkable consistency. They all indicate that the Haitian strains are: 1) clonal (genetically identical) indicating a point-source for the outbreak; and, 2) very similar but not identical to the South Asian strains of
O1.It must be emphasized, however, that the Haitian strains have certain minor traits not found in collections from other parts of the world, which is consistent with the micro-evolution that takes place continuously within theEl Tor biotype as it moves from continent to continent and even country to country.The analysis of available data refutes the argument that the Haitian strains arose indigenously from the Haitian environment. The Haitian strains did not originate from the native environs of Haiti but as a result of human activity in an area that promoted the dissemination of the organism. The presence of riverine settings that merge into an estuarine environment, which is an optimal setting for rapid growth of
O1, islikely to have contributed to the rapid spread of the pathogen. This has happened before in many parts of the world.The precise country from where the Haiti isolate of
O1 arrived is debatable. Preliminary genetic analysis using MLVA profiles and cholera toxin B subunit mutations indicate that the strains isolated during the cholera outbreak in Haiti and those circulating in South Asia, including Nepal, at the same time in2009-2010 are similar. Overall, the combined results from the epidemiological, water and sanitation, and molecular analyses allowed the Independent Panel to develop conclusions and recommendations, which are presented in the next sections.
Page 29 of 32
The Independent Panel of Experts on the Cholera Outbreak in Haiti presents the following conclusions based on the epidemiological, water and sanitation, and molecular analysis investigations that were conducted.
The evidence does not support the hypotheses suggesting that the current outbreak is of a natural environmental source.
In particular, the outbreak is not due to the Gulf of Mexico strain of
nor is it due to a pathogenic mutation of a strain indigenously originating from the Haitian environment.Instead,
the evidence overwhelmingly supports the conclusion that the source of the Haiti cholera outbreak was due to contamination of the Meye Tributary of the Artibonite River with a pathogenic strain of current South Asian type
as a result of human activity.
This contamination initiated an explosive cholera outbreak downstream in the Artibonite River Delta, and eventually, throughout Haiti. The explosive spread was due to several factors:
Tens of thousands of Haitians use the Meye Tributary System and Artibonite River waters for washing,bathing, drinking, and recreation, and were thus exposed to cholera;2)
Thousands of Haitian agriculture workers are regularly exposed to the Artibonite River water, particularly in the rice paddy fields;3)
The canal system and delta of the Artibonite River provided optimal environmental conditions for rapid proliferation of
The Haitian population lacked immunity to cholera;5)
Many areas of Haiti suffer from poor water and sanitation conditions;6)
Infected individuals fled to their home communities from the initial outbreak locations, and in the process dispersed the disease;7)
Infected individuals rapidly concentrated where treatment was available;8)
The South Asian type
strain that caused the outbreak causes a more severe diarrhea due to an increase in the production of a classical type of cholera toxin and has the propensity of protracting outbreaks of cholera; and,9)
The conditions in which cholera patients were initially treated in medical facilities did not help in the prevention of the spread of the disease to other patients or to the health workers.The introduction of this cholera strain as a result of environmental contamination with feces could not have been the source of such an outbreak without simultaneous water and sanitation and health care system deficiencies. These deficiencies, coupled with conducive environmental and epidemiological conditions,allowed the spread of the
organism in the environment, from which a large number of people became infected.
The Independent Panel concludes that the Haiti cholera outbreak was caused by the confluence of circumstances as described above, and was not the fault of, or deliberate action of, a group or individual.
The source of cholera in Haiti is no longer relevant to controlling the outbreak. What are needed at this time are measures to prevent the disease from becoming endemic.